Interview with Ricardo Dominguez

Interview with Ricardo Dominguez

Reclamations is proud to announce the release of “On Electronic Civil Disobedience: Interview with Ricardo Dominguez” as the opening feature for the launch of our new blog.

The interview engages the issues surrounding the tenure battle of Professor Dominguez concerning the virtual sit-in he led in 2010 against the UC Office of the President and his on-going project, The Transborder Immigrant Tool.

Reclamations Editorial Board, January 17, 2012.

Ricardo Dominguez and Zach Blas


On Electronic Civil Disobedience: Interview with Ricardo Dominguez

by Zach Blas on behalf of Reclamations


Ricardo Dominguez is a co-founder of The Electronic Disturbance Theater and a professor at UC San Diego in the Visual Arts Department, where he runs the b.a.n.g. lab, a space for artivist practices. He has pioneered developments in virtual sit-ins and electronic civil disobedience. In 2010, he became under legal investigation, in which his tenure was threatened, for a virutal sit-in led against the UC Office of the President and his current project, The Transborder Immigrant Tool.

Zach Blas: Can you start by giving a brief overview of the various practices–such as, electronic civil disobedience, hacktivism, and electronic disturbance–that you’ve engaged with throughout your times as an artist and activist? With your hire in the Visual Arts Department at UCSD, how do bringing these practices into the university affect not only how you deploy and enact them but also conceptualize them? Your virtual sit-ins have been in tension with universities in the past; what are your thoughts on the existence of these practices within a university context? What pedagogic functions do you see them performing? 

Ricardo Dominguez: CALIT2 and the Visual Arts Department at UCSD offered me an assistant professor position that would allow me to continue my artivist research at a new level in 2004. I felt that it would be worth the effort to investigate doing Electronic Civil Disobedience, border disturbance art, and nano-political interventions within an institution–a core research question would be: what would ECD mean happening from a university?; what would be added to the work; and could it be used against the institution itself? UCSD offered me a stable research base to do work from and a place to continue developing gestures that would push the work beyond what we had achieved with Electronic Disturbance Theater (EDT), which was based on ideas that I had been working on/toward in the 80’s with Critical Art Ensemble (in Tallahassee, Florida) and in the 90′s with in New York City. During the 90’s, EDT established the gesture of Electronic Civil Disobedience–and a great deal of knowledge came from these performances on a global scale.

By 2000, I felt we really needed to stage a new zone for the work to move forward and establish a new series of questions with that knowledge formation–the question of institutional critique, of institutional disturbances. During the middle of the last decade, a need emerged in institutions of higher learning for people to teach students about these practices–most of which came from artists, who had for the most part worked outside of institutional support–that meant that universities had to accept those artists and art groups into the system in order to teach the next generation of researchers and artists–since no degrees existed at that time to get a degree on ECD, networked artivism or hacktivism. Of course, now that more artists and PhD’s are gaining degrees in these areas, it might be indeed more difficult for tactical media artists, artivists, hackitivists etc., to gain a foothold in the academy.

Zach Blas: On March 4, 2010, during the mass student protests sweeping across many University of California campuses and the US, the b.a.n.g. lab led a virtual sit-in in solidarity with these protests against the University of California Office of the President. Could you describe what this action entailed and its legal ramifications? Why, considering that you have led previous virtual sit-ins against various institutions within the UC system, did this particular one instigate an FBI investigation of yourself, the b.a.n.g. lab, and the threatening your tenure? 

Ricardo Dominguez: Well, the Transborder Immigrant Tool was already under investigation starting on January 11, 2010 by UCSD (the entire group of artists working on it were under investigation); then, I came under investigation for the the Virtual Sit-In performance against the UC Office of the President (UCOP) on March 4th, 2010 (which, as you pointed out, joined the communities state wide against students’ fees in the UC system and the dismantling of educational support for K – 12 across California). That was then followed by an investigation by the FBI office of Cybercrimes. The FBI was seeking to frame the performance as a federal violation, a cybercrime, based on UCOP stating that they lost $5,600 U.S. because of the disturbance–it is important to know that the cost had to be over $5000.00 U.S. for it to be a crime. So UCOP tacked on $600.00.U.S. to push the performance into cybercrime territory. In the end, I think that the event of all the actions on the streets of California, the occupations and protests across all the UC’s by students and faculty, and the on-line actions by students and faculty created a space where they could not fail to notice its impact on multiple scales – and our work was already under investigation for TBT, the Mark Yudof resignation site that we hosted, plus the ECD gesture was just too much for the frail imaginary of UCOP.

Zach Blas: During your investigation, The Electronic Disturbance Theater’s Transborder Immigrant Tool gained much attention and criticism. Can you discuss the importance of the poetic, conceptual, and affective in this project? More generally, what is at stake for you and the group in bringing and highlighting the poetic in this form of border activism and disturbance? 

Ricardo Dominguez: The Customs and Border Protection Agency’s 2009 fiscal year report documents 416 border-crossing related deaths from January to October 2009. When the Berlin Wall fell, official reports claimed that ninety-eight people in total died trying to cross from East to West Berlin. In contrast, local and international nongovernmental organizations estimate that 10,000 people to date have perished attempting to cross the Mexico-U.S. border. The Transborder Immigrant Tool (TBT) repurposes inexpensive used mobile phones that have GPS antennae. The project represents a multi-valenced code-switch, a queer technology. Its software aspires to guide “the tired, the poor,” the dehydrated—citizens of the world—to water safety sites. Concomitantly, its platform offers poetic audio “sustenance.” Incapable of resolving the long histories of fear, prejudice, and misunderstanding on both sides of the Mexico-U.S. border, TBT remembers the often overlapping traditions of transcendental and nature writing, earthworks, conceptual art, performance, border art, locative media, and visual and concrete poetries. It learns equally from the efforts of humanitarian aid organizations like the Border Angels and Water Station, Inc. “Poetry in motion,” TBT navigates the borderlands of G.P.S. as a “global positioning system” and what, in another context, Laura Borràs Castanyer and Juan B. Gutiérrez slyly misread as a “global poetic system.”

Zach Blas: The threatening of your tenure caused much concern and dismay–not only for those who work similarly to yourself but also for those who have considered the university to be a place of free speech that welcomes peaceful protest and supports work that demands accountability for social injustice. Notably, you were given tenure for your previous acts of electronic civil disobedience, which included virtual sit-ins. What are your thoughts on tenure now? How does tenure continue to affect your abilities to work and research within the university? 

Ricardo Dominguez: There were three investigations in total–and they were all seeking to find a way to stop TBT and threaten to de-tenure me for doing the very work I was hired to do and tenured for–so the irony was lost to anyone, even the FBI, about these investigations.  In the end, all the investigations were dropped. I did have to agree not to do another VR Sit-In performance on the UCOP for 4 years, but the day I signed the agreement, a number of supporters across the nation did a VR Sit-In on UCOP again–so I am not sure what that means. One strange element about the agreement that they wanted me to sign without even giving me or my legal team time to look over included clauses like: I would never speak or write about what had happened, I was never to create any art work that might disturb anyone, and of course, refrain from an artivist performances–none of which I agreed to.

As for my thoughts on the nature of tenure within the post-contemporary university and in terms of my work in the future? I am not sure what it means right now beyond that it gave me the right to say that I received tenure for the work I was now being investigated for and that I had/have an obligation to continue my research and art practice–or else UCSD might stop me from moving forward to the next level of my academic career. Also, it must be said that CALIT2, UCSD, and especially the Visual Arts Department were very forward looking in allowing me to establish the b.a.n.g. lab.

Zach Blas: There seem to be resonances and overlaps between the UC student protests slogan “Demand Nothing, Occupy Everything” and electronic civil disobedience. The Mark Yudof resigns website could be one example as well as virtual sit-ins. How do you situate your practice and position as a professor in relation to this movement? More specifically, after these investigations and threats, how do you, the b.a.n.g. lab, and Electronic Disturbance Theater remain engaged and active with re-imagining what the university can or could be? 

Ricardo Dominguez: For me and all the groups and artists who have collaborated with EDT 2.0 and the b.a.n.g. lab, aesthetics and activism are one and the same–we do not separate the process and outcomes. Often, the process places both trajectories under erasure to become something else and something unexpected–but never letting go of who we are? We are artists first, artists who work with technology, and who also seek to amplify activist work. I do not think any of us would anchors ourselves as only activists–because those communities are dealing with a specific social issue on a daily bases, while we focus on art projects and only interface with activists when we have something to offer them that we feel creates an activated artwork that can flow between the museum, public culture, and activist needs. Most activists are working extremely hard and do not often have the time to consider the question of poetry, performance art, or the aesthetics of new media art etc., and we do–because it is the art that moves us to make it and to join those who call for us to re-imagine the university now, to re-imagine an alter-globalization now, and alter-networks now–not at the speed of technology, but at the speed of dreams! (as the Zapatistas like to sing).



Ricardo Dominguez is a co-founder of The Electronic Disturbance Theater (EDT), a group that developed Virtual-Sit-In technologies in 1998 in solidarity with the Zapatista communities in Chiapas, Mexico. One of his recent Electronic Disturbance Theater 2.0 projects with Brett Stabaum, Micha Cardenas, Amy Sara Carroll, and Elle Mehrmand is the *Transborder Immigrant Tool* (a Global Poetic System or GPS cellphone safety net tool for crossing the Mexico/U.S border. It was the winner of “Transnational Communities Award,” funded by *Cultural Contact*, Endowment for Culture Mexico – U.S. and handed out by the U.S. Embassy in Mexico), also funded by CALIT2 and two Transborder Awards from the UCSD Center for the Humanities. The Transborder Immigrant Tool has been exhibited at the California Biennial 2010 (OCMA), Here Not There (MOCA, La Jolla), and recently in San Salvador, El Salvado. Ricardo is an Associate Professor at UCSD in the Visual Arts Department, a Hellman Fellow, and Principal/Principle Investigator at CALIT2 ( He is also co-founder of *particle group*, which combines new media, the paraliterary, performance, artivism, and humor to produce different gestures that forge a subversive relationship with the newest frontiers of technological science in an effort to undermine some of their assumptions of authority and power. *particle group* has exhibited at ISEA (San Jose) 2006, House of World Culture (Berlin) 2007, “Inside the Wave” at the San Diego Museum of Art 2008, Oi Futuro (Brazil) 2008, CAL NanoSystems Institute (UCLA), 2009, Medialab-Prado, Madrid (Spain), 2009, Nanosferica,(NYC) 2010.(

Zach Blas is an artist and writer working at the intersections of networked media, queerness, and the political. His on-going project, Queer Technologies, is a collective that produces critical applications, tools, and situations for queer technological agency, interventions, and social formation. Zach is currently co-curating an exhibition that will open in June 2011 with Christopher O’Leary on political imaginaries at Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibitions. He is one of the founding members of The Public School Durham and a PhD student in Literature, Information Science + Information Studies, Visual Studies, and Women’s Studies at Duke University. He also holds an MFA from UCLA.


(photo credit: msbui)

6 Responses to Interview with Ricardo Dominguez

  1. Do not support this bullshit!

    the center of the map that i see exists below the round leave, we are talking about really far bvlow the ground, a sub culture or a sub existence where people who can travel all around the globe are centered. It is in this sub level that our subconscious thoughts are being house…all of our sub conscious thoughts are housed here, below the groupnd and out of sight. We can travel there if we know up from down right from left north from south, and if you hold the map wrong then you may get disoriented. S make sure you look at where the X is marked on the map and try to find on the map where the water is. Fllow the water at all times. This sis the life line of the mape. From the pmap of nature things you will see the buildings that all of these people dwell in sooner or later. You may get disoriented, so again, make sure that you have your map on hand with you at all times and look for the trees. You can’t not see the trees through the forest without your map, so again KNOW you map. There will always be four areas marked off in exactly the same way at the whole. if you can find your way all around the map back to the center then you have done good foryourself. always keep moving. Don’ stop and know where you have gone before. Do no not be scared if you see that treets and buildings are also a apart of the roots in which this place was established, but be aware that your roots go further deeper and longer than anything that you physically see above the line./


    I watched you earse you history, that’s why no one came to the party and that’s why those baby shoes were never worn, because you erased your history. Now the porcupine has no friends and his soul is up for trade. I am curous if that is how baby’s are born. The soul of the porcupine with no friens meets the baby without shoes and they diced that they will era your history. So, no one came to the party. It’s seems like there needs to be another six work sentence sheer to help tie sthsi all ain, but is seems like the circle is almost ready to completle itself to move forward . As for the porcupine, how could he have friends, if he gets mad well you know he’s got those pines that he can easily just spirt rightout…not exactly a fir trade, i you sake me, an dneither is the teeth deal, heck I thought that hair wold get me some place, but maybe the hair dieddied when the baby was born. now that is a fair triad, a bunny rabbit dies and a baby gets born. Talk about history…but then again, if you traded your should for someones teeth then you are perhaps erasing your history…. I wouldn’t go to a party like that…. what kind of friends would be a t place like that,. I think the baby who never wore those shoes might like a party, but not where the porcupine is there. That could be dangerous. I don’t think I am wriing about anything important, but I’m just going to consider that not much is important here , other than that should thing. Thatseems like it’s a pretty big deal. And for that matter so is bearing a child. …. poor baby born without any shoes. or teeth….not really a fair trade at all is > By the way where are the balloons? shouldn’t a party have balloons? Why wold a porcupine be invited to a party. Maybe that’s why he doesn’t have any friendt. Or teeth. well, without any guests there can’t e a party, so I supoost trading your should might not be a bad idea, if you’ve never had a friend, or teeth….like that baby, that little tiny baby. I f I had a baby, I ouwld knit him or her a pair of little booties and maybe even a sweater. I wonder if porcupines wear sweaters or if my teeth in the morning are covered in sweater material. Swattle a baby in that sweater or invites a friend to come inside the swatter and have party. That would make history I bet…. Oh history, what would we do without you. What would this world be if we didn’t’ witness you and see the baby or the teeth. What would it mater if no one came to a silly little party or not. I’d like to e swaddled in a sweater. I’d like that very much. To be held and cradled, just for a moment, other wise then noo one comes to the party then I would have my sweater to keep me warm. My shoes to keep me from stunning my toes and that dang porcupine to rimind me that I have feelings, physical feelings. Maybe i could make a swatter.





    Sept 13th

    I took a picture of myself with me sitting on the floor, i’m in the studio of my Beeddig the Walls gallery. It is the day before the show starts and I was extremely happy about putting this show together. I’m sitting on the florr and there is a mire in front of me, but it’s not a typical mirror, the mirror is divied into foru parts. The four parts make a whole and it sorta reminds me of north south east west, in that my body id spread across all four regions. I like that I’m the only person in the room and I like that I’m sitting floor.I just had my first interruption, but it was Annata so i sgues that’s sorta expected HA HA AHA AH… I actually have taken a ilking to him this semester. He was genuinely nice to me and even offered to help me with my techinall difficulties- my sound class is a bitt of a challenge, and he could see that I’m not that equipted to handle all the technical aspects of filmmaking. I thought that was very sincere of him and extremely nice. So then i went to get my lunch and have been sitting here eating, and then decided to do this little freewriting, ecause I dint’ get up early enough to do the free writing assignment. Anyways. As i am sitting here Anathan just came up and said, do you mind i f I sit her and eat with you, What surprise!! Anyways, he is sitting across from me right now playing on his [phone … but i dgress, back to my gallery show and the Bedding The Walls :: folding the floor… This was at UCSD and I am so filled with memories from that experience. This was the year that I graduated and I was trying very hard to communicate a bunch of things…. But what eneded up happening is that the Oranges in the tub and the peeling or sharll I say the pencils that were peeled and the oranges that were shoved through that ciruclare round hole where the water should come out.. was never really fully recognized. At least not by those who wre in attendance. It is okay with me that not everything I do is understood, because long after this exhibit thesee arranges came into play… Oranges have now become quite a thing for me , so even if people didn’t understand the oraganes at the time, perhaps that is okay,,, that all this time later we make those organs “something”… I mean recently with the Chick-Filu-o Chick-F-A and Anita Bryant, with the Florida Orange scandal where A person threw a pie into her face…. it was quite timely that I sat on all those oranges… Also the whole Orange orchard thing and fruit with religion…. NOT APPLES …. I have n saying… this free writing thing is very interesting…. Okay time to go to class now.

    Sept 15th

  2. I blog quite often and I genuinely thank you for your content.
    The article has truly peaked my interest.
    I am going to take a note of your website and keep checking for new information about once
    per week. I opted in for your Feed as well.

  3. hey there and thank you for your info – I have certainly picked up anything new from right here.
    I did however expertise a few technical points using this website, since I experienced to reload the website lots of times previous to I could get it to load correctly.
    I had been wondering if your hosting is OK? Not that I am complaining, but sluggish loading instances times will often affect your placement in google and can damage your quality score
    if ads and marketing with Adwords. Well I am adding this RSS to my email and could look out for much more of your respective fascinating content.
    Make sure you update this again soon.

  4. I like the helpful information you supply to your articles. I’ll bookmark your blog and check again here frequently. I am moderately certain I’ll be informed lots of new stuff proper right here! Best of luck for the next!

  5. Can you keep up? Middle-agedwomen are not spells to get ex
    back interested in casual sex — an outdated notion that
    is painfully obvious in the world combined with innumerable bios and you still manage to stay positive!
    I saw I spells to get ex back had a date with
    a guy who’s going to be interested in. Additionally, people often
    assume the relative prevalence of whife male/Asian woman couples come
    from white men’s apparent preference for stereotypically submissive

    My webpage ways to get my boyfriend back –

  6. Also ask what they are reliable enough to offer.
    In the next important school bus thing to perform.
    The C-S-H produced is the company going further. Most have no clue that someone who is not vital, but
    you have to be pulled by an expert.

    My webpage site (Allen)

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>